[The Classic Christian Network] Jewish Studies: Ancient Israel (2of100) Timel…

Posted: April 8, 2011 in Uncategorized


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Jewish Topical

“Ancient Israel”

(2 of 100)

TWO

 

 

TIMELINE OF ISRAEL

 

Pt 4

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1946-1949)


1946

1947

1948
1949

1946

July 4 Mob attack against Jewish survivors in Kielce, Poland. Following a ritual murder accusation, a Polish mob kill more than 40 Jews and wound dozens of others. This attack sparks a second mass migration of Jews from Poland and Eastern Europe to DP camps in Germany, Austria and Italy.
August 1 The IMT passes judgment on the major Nazi war criminals on trial in Nuremberg. Eighteen were convicted, and three were acquitted. Eleven of the defendants were sentenced to death.
October 16 In accordance with the sentences handed down after the convictions, ten defendants are executed by hanging. One defendant, Hermann Goering, escapes the hangman by committing suicide in his cell.

 

1947

April 2 Britain requests special session of the General Assembly to consider future government of Palestine.
May 15 General Assembly establishes a Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP).
July 11 The Exodus 1947 ship carrying 4,500 Jewish refugees sails for British-administered Palestine from southern France, despite British restrictions on Jewish immigration. The British intercept the ship and force it to proceed to Haifa in Palestine and then the French port of Port-de-Bouc, where it lay anchor for more than a month.
August 31 UNSCOP issues majority report recommending partition of Palestine with an internationalised Jerusalem; minority report recommended federal scheme
September 8 Ultimately, the British take the refugees from the Exodus 1947 to Hamburg, Germany, and forcibly return them to DP camps. The fate of the Exodus 1947dramatized the plight of Holocaust survivors in the DP camps and increased international pressure on Great Britain to allow free Jewish immigration to Palestine.
September 29 Arab Higher Committee formally rejects UNSCOP plan.
October 2 Jewish Agency formally accepts UNSCOP partition plan.
November 29 As the postwar Jewish refugee crisis escalates and relations between Jews and Arabs deteriorate, the British government decides to submit the status of Palestine to the United Nations. In a special seccion on this date, the United Nations General Assembly voted to partition Palestine into two new states, one Jewish and the other Arab. The decision was accepted by the Jewish leadership but rejected by the Arab ledership.UN approves partition plan by a vote of 33-13 with 10 abstentions to create a Jewish and Arab state.
November 30

Arab mobs attack Jewish quarters in Jerusalem and Arab irregulars begin operations against Jewish cities and settlements.

 

1948

March 19 U.S. proposes suspension of partition plan and calls for a special session of the General Assembly to discuss trusteeship for Palestine.
April 1 Security Council calls for truce in Palestine and special session of the General Assembly to reconsider future of Palestine.
May 13 The Arabs of Jaffa surrender to the Haganah forces
May 14 Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel (May 14). U.S. recognizes Israel de facto. David Ben-Gurion announces the establishment of the State of Israel in Tel Aviv and declares that Jewish immigration into the new state would be unrestricted. Between 1948 and 1951, almost 700,000 Jews immigrate to Israel, including more than two-thirds of the Jewish DPs in Europe.
  End of British MandateArab armies invade Israel.
  President Harry S. Truman recognizes the State of Israel within its first hour of existence.
May 17 USSR recognizes Israel.
May 19 Jerusalem is cut off by Arab forces.
  War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949).
May 20 General Assembly Committee appoints Count Folke Bernadotte as mediator for Palestine.
  Brandeis University is founded in the U.S. as first nonsectarian, Jewish-sponsored, institution of higher education.
May 28 Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem falls to the Jordanian Arab Legion.
May 31 Israel Defense Forces (IDF) formed.
June Congress passes the Displaced Persons Act, authorizing 200,000 DPs to enter the United States in 1949 and 1950. Though at first the law’s stipulations made it unfavorable to Jewish DPs, Congress amended the bill, and by 1952, thousands of DPs enter the United States. An estimated 80,000 Jewish DPs immigrated to the United States with the aid of American Jewish agencies between 1945 and 1952.
June 1 First convoy reaches Jerusalem along “Burma Road.”
June 11 First cease-fire proclaimed – Four week truce commences.
June 22 Altalena fired upon and sunk off the coast of Tel-Aviv.
July 8 Arab League refuses to renew truce; fighting resumed and Israel gained on all fronts.
July 9 First cease-fire end.
July 21 Second cease-fire proclaimed.
August 14 Arab countries reject Israeli peace proposals .
August 17 First Israeli coin minted.
September 17 UN mediator Swedish Count Folke Bernadotte murdered in Jerusalem by Lehi fighters. Succeeded by Dr. Bunche.
September 20 Bernadotte Plan published by UN.
October 15 Second cease-fire ends.
October 15 Fighting breaks out in Negev; the Egyptian army driven south.
October 19 Security Council orders an immediate cease-fire.
October 22 Israel and Egypt agree to cease-fire.
November 8 First census indicates 712,000 Jewish residents, and 69,000 Arab residents in the State of Israel.
November 16 Security Council calls for armistice talks.
November 18 Israel accepts call for armistice.
December 11 General Assembly establishes Palestine Conciliation Commission, reaffirms decision on Jerusalem and calls for repatriation or resettlement of refugees.
December 17 Beginning of “Operation Magic Carpet” to bring Yemenite Jews to Israel.
November 22 Fighting breaks out in Negev. Egyptian forces driven beyond mandatory borders, but retain the Gaza Strip.
  Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries: 1948-52.

 

1949

January 7 Fighting ends in Sinai. Israeli forces withdraw from Sinai following British ultimatum and U.S. pressure.
January 13 Israeli and Egyptian delegations meet in Rhodes for armistice talks, chaired by Dr. Bunche. Armistice agreements begin with EgyptJordanSyriaLebanon.
  Jerusalem is declared the capitol of Israel and is divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule.
January 21 First Knesset (parliament) elected. Ben Gurion heads the Labor led coalition.
January 30 Britain, New Zealand and the Netherlands recognize Israel de facto. Australia and Chile recognize Israel de jure.
  U.S. recognizes Israel de jure.
February 1 Israel ends military governorship in Jerusalem.
February Chaim Weizmann is elected Israel’s first president. First meeting of the First Knesset.
February 24 Armistice agreement signed with Egypt.
March 9 David Ben-Gurion presents first government to the Knesset.
March 23 Armistice agreement signed with Lebanon.
April 3 Armistice agreement signed with Jordan.
April 25 Trans-Jordan becomes The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
April-June First round of Israel-Arab talks in Lausanne under auspices of Palestine Conciliation Commission.
  The Weizmann Institute is inaugurated in Rehovot.
May 11 Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.
July 20 Armistice agreement signed with Syria.
August Second round of Israel-Arab talks in Lausanne is deadlocked.
August 17 Theodore Herzl’s remains are brought to Israel and interred on Mt. Herzl.
November 9 Professor Yigal Yadin appointed second IDF Chief-of-General Staff.
December 9 General Assembly votes for internationalization of Jerusalem under Trusteeship Council administration.
December 13 Government decides to hold its Knesset sessions in Jerusalem and declares Jerusalem to be Israel’s capital.
  Umm Rashrash, today Eilat, is captured by the IDF.

Modern Israel & the Diaspora

(1950-1959)


1950

1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959

 

1950

  As American Jews move to the suburbs, they build new synagogues. Joining a synagogue becomes the chief expression of Jewish identity. In 1930, a mere 20 percent of American Jewish families belong to a synagogue; by 1960, nearly 60 percent do.
January 16 Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg recognize Isael de jure
January 23 Knesset by 60-2 vote, establishes Jerusalem as Israel’s capital
April 4 UN Trusteeship Council approves statute for the internationalization of Jerusalem.
April 24 Jordan annexes West Bank, including East Jerusalem
April 28 Britain recognizes Israel de jure
  The Knesset moves from Tel Aviv to King George St. in Jerusalem.
May 25 U.S., Britain and France issue Tripartite Declaration on Middle East
June 17 Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Lebanon and Yemen initial Collective Security Pact, calling on them to assist an Arab state under attack.
July 5 The Law of Return is enacted
November 14 First nationwide municipal elections after independence
  The West Bank unites with Jordan.
May 19 Operation Ezra and Nehemiah brings Iraqi Jews to Israel
  Fifty-fifty deal between Aramco and Saudi Arabia.
  Trans-Arabian Pipeline completed from Eastern Province oil fields to Mediterranean coast.

 

1951

April 12 Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Rememberence Day established on 27th of month of Nissan
May 18 Security Council calls on Israel to halt Huleh drainage project pending arrangements to be fixed by the Mixed Armistice Commission. Fighting erupts between Israel and Syria in demilitarized zone.
July 20 King Abdullah of Jordan is assassinated at the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem on suspicion of planning peace talks with Israel.
July 30 Elections held for the Second Knesset
September 1 Security Council calls on Egypt to end its blockade of Suez Canal to shipping to and from Israel. Egypt refuses to comply
September 13 Palestine Conciliation Commission opens another round of talks in Paris with Israeli and Arab delegations
September 28 Israel offers non-agression pacts to Arab states, calls for direct negotiations and offers compensation for Arab refugee’s property
  The Hula Valley reclamation program begins turning swamps into arable lands.
  Egged bus transport cooperative is founded.
October 7 David Ben-Gurion presents his government to the Knesset
November 21 Palestine Conciliation Commission announces failure of the talks
December 24 Libya proclaims independence
  Mossadegh nationalizes Anglo-Iranian in Iran (first postwar oil crisis)
  Safaniya field, world’s largest off shore oil field, discovered in Saudi Arabia.

 

1952

  Operation Coresh brings Iranian Jews to Israel.
  The Israel Atomic Energy Commission is established.
January 1 Seven armed terrorists attacked and killed a 19-year-old girl in her home in Beit Yisrael in Jerusalem
January 7 Knesset summoned to approve broader negotiations with West Germany: Menachem Begin leads stormy demonstration against negotiations
January 9 Knesset supports negotations by 61-50
May 13 The first graduating class of physicians is awarded degrees at Hebrew University.
July 23 Free Officers carry out Coup d’etat in Egypt; oust King Farouk
July 28 Egypt proclaimed Republic
August 11 Hussein proclaimed Crown Prince following illness of King Talal. Council of regents appointed
August 12-13 Yiddish writers and other Jewish cultural figures are executed in the Soviet Union on “Night of the Murdered Poets” on orders from Joseph Stalin in the basement of the Lubyanka prison in Moscow.
August 18 Ben-Gurion welcomes Egyptian revolution in Knesset
September 10 Israel and West Germany sign Reparations Agreement in Luxembourg
November 9 President Chaim Weizman dies
December 8 Yitzchak Ben-Tzvi sworn in as President, after Albert Einstein declines a request from Ben-Gurion to serve.
  Israel participates in its first Olympic Games in Helsinki, Finland.

.

1953

  The Academy for Hebrew Language and the Society for the Protection of Nature in Israel (SPNI) are founded.
  Egyptian republic proclaimed, Nasser takes over: 1953, 1954
  The Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial Authority is established.
February 12 USSR breaks diplomatic relations with Israel
  Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed for conspiring to deliver U.S. atomic bomb secrets to the U.S.S.R.
May 13 U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles visits Israel
June 7 A youngster was killed and three others were wounded in shooting attacks on residential areas in southern Jerusalem.
June 9 Terrorists killed a resident of Lod, after throwing hand grenades and spraying gunfire in all directions. On the same night, another group of terrorists attacked a house in Hadera.
June 11 Terrorists attacked a young couple in their home in Kfar Hess and shot them to death.
July 20 Relations with USSR restored
August Unit 101, an IDF special force unit, is founded and commanded by Ariel Sharon to combat ongoing terror attacks by Arab fedayeen.
August 19 Mossadegh falls, Shah returns in Iran.
September 2 Israel starts work on Jordan River project. Syria complains to Security Council
October 15 President Eisenhower appoints Ambassador Eric Johnston to help establish regional water development project based on Jordan River
October 20-28 U.S. halts economic aid to Israel until it halts work on the Jordan River project. Israel complies and aid resumed
December 7 Ben-Gurion resigns as Prime Minister and is replaced by Moshe Sharett as Prime Minister and Pinchas Lavon as Defense Minister

 

1954

  Yad Vashem Holocaust museum opens.
  Stern College for Women, the first liberal arts women’s college under Jewish auspices, opens in New York City.
  The founding of the Conference of Major Jewish Organizations indicates a galvanization of Jewish lobby in the U.S.
January 1 “Katzner trial” opens in Jerusalem District Court. (Malkiel Greenwald was accused of libelling Dr. Rudolf Kastner regarding his alleged collaboration with Adolf Eichmann in Hungary, in 1944).
January 22 USSR vetoes Western draft resolutions at Security Council permitting Israel to resume work on River Jordan project.
March 17 Terrorists ambushed a bus traveling from Eilat to Tel Aviv at Maale Akrabim, opening fire at short range. The terrorists boarded the bus, and shot each passenger, one by one, murdering 11.
March 20 USSR vetoes Western draft resolution at Security Council calling on Egypt to comply with 1951 resolution on Suez Canal
April 17 Colonel Nasser becomes Prime Minister of Egypt
Summer Eleven Jews are arrested in Egypt on suspicion of planting bombs around Cairo. Two are hanged. Though Israel denies involvement, it is later learned Israeli Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon was behind the spy ring; Lavon is forced to resign over the operation, which becomes known as the “Lavon Affair.”
September 28 Egypt seizes Israeli ship “Bat Galim” at Port Said.
October 6 Israel offers at the UN non-aggression pact with Arab states

 

1955

  Soviet bloc begins first arms sales to Egypt and Syria.
January 2 Two hikers killed by terrorists in the Judean Desert
February 17 Lavon resigns as Defense Minister amidst controvery over espionage scandal involving Israeli agents who were executed in Egypt
February 21 Ben-Gurion returns to government as Defense Minister after Lavon’s resignation.
February 24 Baghdad Pact signed between Turkey and Iraq.
  Development town of Dimona is founded in the Negev by 36 immigrant families from Morocco and Tunisia.
February 28 Following intensified raids into Israel, IDF raids Egyptian military installations in Gaza
March 24

One young woman killed and 18 wounded when terrorists threw hand grenades and opened fire on a crowded wedding celebration in Patish

April Israel excluded from participation in Bandung Conference of Asian and African nations
May Bar Ilan University, with its emphasis on Jewish heritage studies, opens in Ramat Gan.
June 22 Dr. Israel Kastner, a Hungarian Jew, was found guilty by a district court of collaboration with the Nazis; the decision was eventually appealed and overturned for lack of evidence
July 26 Elections for the Third KnessetBen-Gurion again becomes Prime Minister
July 27 Bulgarian fighter pilots down an El Al civilian airline, killing 58 people
September 27 Egyptian-Czechoslovak arms deal announced
October 11 Arab League rejects Eric Johnston’s Jordan River plan
October 18 Premier Sharett applies to U.S. for permission to purchase arms
October 20 Egypt and Syria sign mutual defence treaty
November 2 Ben-Gurion again becomes Israel’s Prime Minister
  Nasser objects to terms of Western offer to finance the building of the Aswan Dam.
December 6 Israel protests to Security Council, in note dated 22 November, continued Egyptian attacks from Gaza Strip
December 26 Cairo announces beginning of implementation of defence pacts with Syria and Saudi Arabia

 

1956

  Sudan & Tunisia gain independence, as well as Pakistan Republic.
  Israel begins laying on oil pipeline from Eilat to Ashkelon.
  Oil discovered in Algeria and Nigeria.
January 18 Nasser announces new constitution for Egypt and pledges to re-conquer Palestine
January 25 Ambassador Eban requests permission from Secretary Dulles to acquire arms in the U.S.
March 12 EgyptSyria and Saudi Arabia announce plans to coordinate their defense
April

UN Secretary General tours Middle East in an effort to reestablish armistice. Cease-fire achieved between Israel and Egypt on 19 April and with Jordan on 26 April

April 7 One young woman killed when terrorists threw 3 hand grenades into her house in Ashkelon.
  Two killed when terrorists opened fire on a car at Kibbutz Givat Chaim.
April 11 Three children and one youth worker killed, and five injured, when terrorists opened fire on a synagogue full of children and teenagers in Shafrir (Kfar Chabad).
April 29 Egyptians killed 21-year-old Ro’i Rottenberg from Nahal Oz
May 6 Jordan and Egypt announce plans to unify their forces
May 9 Dulles tells NATO in Paris that the U.S. would not sell arms to Israel directly in order to avoid U.S.-USSR confrontation in the Middle East
May 31 Syria and Jordan sign military agreement
May-October France delivers arms to Israel under secret agreement with tacit U.S. approval
June 24 Nasser elected President of Egypt
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