[The Classic Christian Network] Jewish Studies: Ancient Israel (2of100) Timel…

Posted: April 8, 2011 in Uncategorized


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NATSZAL – The Jewish Network is not about wierd or wacky; wild or wooly, legalistic or Judaistic. It is about Jesus and studies about Him. Some studies involve discussing Jewish Culture; but this is not a Network in How to Be a Jew or a Gentile, a separatist or exclusivism. This is a Network that presents factual information as it relates to Jewish Studies.

Jewish Topical

“Ancient Israel”

(2 of 100)

TWO

 

 

TIMELINE OF ISRAEL

 

Crusades

(Christian Warfare with Islam in Palestine)

(1095-1258)


 

1096 Participants in the First Crusade massacre Jews in several Central European cities, beginning centuries of pogroms linked to the Crusades.
1096 More than 5,000 Jews were murdered in Germany in several different attacks.
May 3, 1096 Count Emico of Leiningen, on his way to join a Crusade, attacked the synagogue at Speyers and killed all the defenders.
May 27, 1096 1,200 Jews commit suicide in Mayence to escape Count Emico, who tried to forcibly convert them.
1085-1140 Judah Halevi (Jewish author).
1099 Crusaders (European Christians) capture Jerusalem and massacre tens of thousands of the city’s Jews.
1100 Germans, including German Jews, migrate to Poland. It is seen as “the land of opportunity.”
1107 Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yoseph Ibn Tashfin orders all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave.
1109 Tiberias falls to the Crusaders.
1115 After reconquering Toledo, Spain from the Muslims, Alphonso I invited all Jews to return.
1120 Jews from Muslim countries begin to settle in Byzantium.
1124 Records of a Jewish gate in Kiev attest to the presence of a Jewish community there.
1135-1204 Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar).
1139 Judah Halevi completes his influential philosophy of Judaism known as The Kuzari. He is a friend of commentator Abraham Ibn Ezra, who also left Spain for the life of a wandering Jewish scholar.
1143 150 Jews killed in Ham, France.
1144 Jews in Norwich, England, are accused of murdering a Christian child in what is believed to be the first ritual murder charge. The blood libel, as well as others in England that follow in the 12th century, incites anti-Jewish violence.
1160-1173 Benjamin of Toledo, The Itinerary of Benjamin of Toledo.
1163 Benjamin of Toledo writes of 40,000 Jews living in Baghdad, complete with 28 synagogues and 10 Torah academies.
1171 Saladin (1138-1193) overthrows Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.
1187 Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from Crusaders grants Jews permission to re-enter.
March 16, 1190 Jews attacked, over 150 die after a six day standoff in York, England.
1190 Approximately 2,500 Jews live in England, enjoing more rights than Jews on the continent.
1191 French King Phillip starts the Third Crusade, cancels debts to Jews, drives many Jews out of France, confiscates their property.
1194-1270 Scholar and Jewish leader Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides).
1195 Moses Maimonides completes The Guide to the Perplexed, considered the most important work of medieval Jewish thought.
1211 A group of 300 rabbis from France and England settle in Palestine (Eretz Yisrael), beginning what might be interpreted as Zionist aliyah.
1198-1216 Pope Innocent III (Christian).
1204 First synagogue built in Vienna, a city where Jews enjoyed more freedom than in other areas of Austria.
1215 Fourth Lateran Council expands anti-Jewish decrees in Europe, forces Jews to wear the Yellow Patch, the “Badge of Shame.
1222 Deacon Robert of Reading, England, was burned for converting to Judaism, setting a precedent for the burning of “heretics”.
1222 Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury and a prime mover of the Lateran Council, forbids Jews from building new synagogues, owning slaves or mixing with Christians.
ca. 13th cen. The Zohar (a Jewish kabbalistic book): .
1227 Death of Genghis Khan (roving Mongol conqueror).
ca. 1230 Inquisition by Christians in Spain.
1232 The Jewish community of Marrakech, Morocco, is reestablished, leading to massacres of Jews caused by Islamic political revolt and grassroots hatred.
1239 Pope Gregory IX orders the kings of France, England, Spain and Portugal to confiscate Hebrew books, Following this edict, the Talmud is condemned and burned in France and Rome.
1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas (Christian scholar).
1240-1292 Spanish Kabbalist Abraham Abulafia.
1243 First accusation of desecration of the Host (the wafers used is Christian Mass) – the blood libel – in Berlitz, Germany.
1244-1517 Rule by Tartars, Mongols, Ayybids, and Mamelukes.
1247 Pope Innocent IV issued a Bull refuting blood libels and sent it throughout Germany and France.
1254-1517 Mamluk Islamic rule (new dynasty) in Egypt.
1258 Fall of Islamic Abbasid dynasty to Hulagu (Mongol).

Further Transitions and Rebuilding of Political Islam

(1258-1500)


 

1258 Mongols sack Baghdad.
1278 The Edict of Pope Nicholas III requires compulsory attendance of Jews at conversion sermons.
1286 Moses de Leon of Spain completes a commentary of the Torah. The Zohar remains a central text of Jewish mysticism.
1290/1291 Expulsion of Jews from England.
1291 Expulsion of Christian Crusaders from Syria.
1348 Black Death reaches Europe.
1445 Gutenberg prints Europe’s first book with movable type.
1453 Ottomans begin rule from Constantinople.
1492 End of Muslim states in Spain.
1492 Columbus sets sail.

Mamluk Rule

(1291-1516)


 

1300-1517 Italian Renaissance.
1306-1394 Expulsions of Jews from France.
1328-1384 John Wycliffe (Christian dissident leader).
14th century Rise of the Ottoman Muslim dynasty in Turkey.
1333 Casimir the Great takes power in Poland and brings with him a sympathetic attitude toward the Jews, who benfit as a result.
1348 Black Death reaches Europe and Jews are accused of poisoning Christian wells.
1336-1405 Timurlane/Tamurlane, Turkic ruler in central Asia.
1360 King Pedro of Portugal arrests and tortures to death Samuel Ben Meir Abulafia. No charges were ever given and the King confiscated Abulafia’s lands and great wealth.
1400 Damascus sacked by Timurlane.
1424 Jewish physician, Y’en Ch’eng is given the surname “Chao” as an honor by the Emperor. This family, which probably originated in India and Babylon, became on of the leading Chinese Jewish families.
1437-1509 Philosopher, financier and scholar, Don Isaac Abarbanel intercedes many times on behalf of his fellow Jews, including trying to stop Ferdinand from expelling them. This time he was foiled by Torquemada and he followed them into exile. His commentaries cover the major and minor Prophets. Consistent with his belief that the Messiah would come in his lifetime, he also wrote three messianic texts called Migdal Yeshu’ot (Tower of Salvation).
1452-1454/55 Gutenberg prints Europe’s first book with movable type.
1447 Following a fire in Posen where the original charter (written by Casimir the Great) granted the Jews “privileges,” Casimir IV renews all their rights and makes his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. This charter lasted less than a decade before it was revoked.
1452-1515 Astronomer and historian, Abraham Zacuto creates tables used by Columbus. After the explusion of 1492, Zacuto went to Portugal where he developed the metal Astrolab used by Vasco Da Gama. In 1498 he was forced to flee or convert. He left and reached Tunis where he wrote a history of the Jews from creation until the sixteenth century.
1453 Fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) to Ottoman Muslims.
1454 Casimir IV of Poland revokes the Jewish charter, at the insistence of Bishop Zbignev. The Bishop had correctly predicted Casimir’s defeat by the Teutonic Knights backed by the Pope, and succeeded in convincing the King that it was due to the Jews.
1463 Pope Nicholas V authorized the establishment of the Inquisition to investigate heresy among the Marranos.
1479-15 Isabella’s severe anti-Jewish learnings influence Ferdinand and lead to the final expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
1486 First prayer book published in SoncinoItaly.
1488 The first complete edition of the Hebrew Bible is printed in SoncinoItaly.
1492 Christian expulsion of Muslim Moors from Spain.
1492 Columbus sets sail.
1492 Christian expulsion of Jews from Spain, sending over 200,000 Jews fleeing: 137,000 Jews forced to leave Sicily.
1494 Polish King Jan Olbracht’s orders Jews to leave to leave Crakow for Kazimierz after they are blamed for a large fire that destroyed part of the city.
1496 Manuel of Portugal expels Jews from Portugal.
1516 The closed Jewish Quarter in VeniceItaly, is dubbed the Geto Nuovo (New Foundry). “Geto” will later become the basis for the word “ghetto”.
1505-1584 Kabbalist and author of “Lecha Dodi” (Come My Beloved), Solomon ben Moses Alkabetz.

Reformation and Post-Reformation Christian Period

(1517-1569)


 

1510 38 Jews were burned at the stake in Berlin.
1516 Jews in Venice are relegated to a ghetto, the most extreme segregation to which Jews had been submitted. Over time, Jews in many lands are similarly segregated.
1483-1546 Martin Luther.
1517 Luther posts “95 theses” in Wittenburg, Germany
1520-1579 Cracow Rosh Yeshiva whose major work was an adaptation of Caro’s Shulchan Aruch to Europoean Jewry, Moses Isserles.
1525-1609 Brilliant Talmudist, mathematician and astronomer, popular with Emperor Randolh II. Judah Loew Ben Bezalel, the Maharal of Prague also created the Golem, a man from clay who protected the Jewish community.
1534 First Yiddish book published in CracowPoland.
1534-1572 Talmud and Kabbalah scholar, Isaac Ben Solomon Luria, given the name “The Ari” (The Lion).
1543 Luther writes “About the Jews and Their Lies,” considered the first modern anti-Semitic tract.
ca. 1500-1650 Protestant Christian Reformation.
1509-1564 John Calvin.
1516 Jewish ghetto instituted in Venice.
1526 The Prague Haggadah, which contains the oldest known printed Yiddush poem, is published.
1547 Ivan the Terrible becomes ruler of Russia and refuses to allow Jews to live in his kingdon.
1555 Jewish ghetto instituted in Rome.
1559 Pope Paul IV allows the first printing of the Zohar, a Jewish mystical text.
1567/1571 Shulhan Arukh (code of Jewish law by Joseph Caro).published.
1569 Isaac Luria writes the Kabbalist in Safed. Luria’s ideas give rise to a new form of Jewish mysticism.

Dominance of Ottoman Muslim Empire in Turkey

(1500-1920)


 

1517 Victory of (Muslim Ottoman Turk) Selim I over Egypt.
  Ottoman Muslim rulers (later) claim the title “caliph”.
1520-1566 Sulayman I, “the Magnificent,” rules.
ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Safavid Shiite Muslim dynasty in Iran.
ca. 1500-1800 Dominance of Mughal Muslim dynasty in India.
1550-1619 Rabbi, preacher and biblical commentator known for his brilliant sermons calling for self improvement, Ephraim Solomon of Lunshits.
1550 Dr. Jospeh Hacohen was chased out of Genoa for practicing medicine, and soon after, all the Jews were expelled.
1553 Under the direction of Cardinal Caraffa, later Pope Paul IV, the Talmud was confiscated and publicaly burned in Rome on Rosh Hashanah, starting a wave ofTalmud burning throughout Italy.
1554 Cornelio da Montalcino, a Franciscan Friar who converted to Judaism, is burned alive in Rome.
1555 In his Bull Cum Nimis Absurdum, Pope Paul IV renewed all anti-Jewish legislation and installed a ghetto in Rome. The Bull also forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
1555-1631 Talmudic commentator, author of Chidushei Halachot, Samuel Eliezer Aidles, also known as “Maharsha.” .
1558 In Recanti, Italy, under the protection of Pope Paul IV, Joseph Paul More, a baptized Jew, entered a synagogue on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, and tried to preach a conversion sermon. The congregation evicted him and a near massacre occured. Soon after, the Jews were expelled from Recanti.
1585 First known Jew to step on American soil, Joachim Gaunse (Ganz), lands on Roanoke Island.
1596-1650 Rene Descartes (scholar-philosopher): .
1564 In Brest Litovsk, the son of a wealthy Jewish tax collector, is accused of killing the family’s Christian servant for ritual purposes. He is tortured and killed.
1566 Three months into his reign, Pope Pius V rejects Pope Pius IV leniency towards Jews and reinstates the restrictions of Pope Paul IV which forced Jews to wear a special cap, forbade them from owning real estate or practicing medicine on Christians. It also limited Jewish communities to only one synagogue.
1569 Brest Litovsk welcomes Jewish settlement. In 80 years the Jewish population surges from 4,000 to more than 50,000.
1586 Pope Sixtus V rejects Pope Gregory XIII policies and forbids Jews from living in the Papal states and to print the Talmud.
1587-1643 The leading Jewish composer of the late Italian Renaissance and the musical director of court of Mantua, Salamone de Rossi.
1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada, weakening Spain and decreasing the reach of the Inquisition, espcially in the Netherlands.
1590 Built of wood, the entire Jewish quarter of Posen burned while then gentile population watched and pillaged. 15 people died and 80 Torah scrolls were burned.
1591 Rabbi, encyclopedist, physician and pupil of Galileo, Jose Solomon Delmedigo wrote over 30 works in math, geometry, chemistry, mechanics, philosophy and medicine.
1592 Esther Chiera, who held considerable influence in Sultan Murad III’s court, was executed because of jealousy and the Sultan’s desire for her assets.
1593 Pope Clement VIII expelled Jews from all Papal states except Rome and Ancona.
1596 Official Yom Kippur services are held for the first time in Amsterdam, though not without controversy.
1603 Frei Diogo Da Assumpacao, a partly Jewish friar who embraced Judaism, was burned alive in Lisbon. His arguments against Christianity were published and gained wide popularity.
1605 A Jesuit missionary in China meets with Al T’Ien, a Chinese Jewish teacher. Thier correspondence is the basis for most known information regarding the Kaifeng Jewish community.
1605-1657 Menasseh ben Israel (Jewish scholar-mystic).
1612 The Hamburg Senate decides to officially allow Jews to live in the city on the condition there is no public worship.
1614 Vincent Fettmilch, who called himself the “new Haman of the Jews,” led a raid on a Frankfurt synagogue that turned into an attack which destroyed the whole community.
1615 King Louis XIII of France decreed that all Jews must leave the country within one month on pain of death.
1615 The Guild, led by Dr. Chemnitz, “non-violently” forced the Jews from Worms.
1616 The Bishop of Speyer, with the backing of Frederick’s troops, readmitted the Jews to Worms.
1616 Holland’s Prince Maurice of Orange allowed each each city to decide for itself whether to admit Jews. In the towns where Jews were admitted, they would not be required to wear a badge of any sort identifying them as Jews.
1616 Jesuits arrives in Grodno, Poland and accused the Jews of blood orgies and host desecrations.
1618-1638 Thity Years War between Catholics and Protestants centers around GermanyAustriaFrance and the Netherlands.
1619 Shah Abbasi of the Persian Sufi Dynasty increased persecution against the Jews forcing many to outwardly practice Islam. (Many secretly practiced Judaism.).
1620 Christian Puritans begin emigrations to America.
1621 Sir Henry Finch, legal advisor to King James I, makes the first English call to restore the Jews to their homeland in his treatise The World’s Great Restoration or Calling of the Jews.
1621-1663 Well-known commentator of the Shulchan Aruch and author of several other works, Shabbetai Ben Meir Hacohen.
1622-1629 Persian Jews are forced to convert to Islam.
1623-1662 Blaise Pascal (scholar).
1625 The Jews of Vienna were forced to move into a ghetto called Leopoldstadt.
1625 Pope Urban VIII forbids Roman Jews to erect gravestones.
1626-1676 Shabbatai Zvi (Jewish “messianic” leader).
1630-1703 Financier and founder of the Viennese Jewish community, Samuel Oppenheimer.
1632 Miguel and Isabel Rodreguese and five others were burned alive in front of the King and Queen of Spain after being discovered holding Jewish rites.
1632-1677 Baruch/Benedict Spinoza (scholar, converted Jew).
1636 Rhode Island grants religious liberty to Jews.
1639 More than 80 New Christians (Jews who converted to Christianity) were burned at the stake after the Inquisition caught them holding regular Jewish services in Lima, Peru.
1641-1718 Shabbtai Ben Joseph the Bass, Author of Seftai Yesharim, the first bibliography of Hebrew books and biblical commentator. He also built a printing house in 1689, despite being jailed several times, accused of printing anti-Christian material. The printing house lasted more than 150 years.
1642 The first Jewish colony in the New World is established in Recife, Brazil.
1642 Chao Ying-Cheng helped rebuild the synagogue in Kai Fen after the Yellow River flooded the area. He also served in the goverrnment and helped build schools and squashed marauding bandits.
1648 Bogdan Chmelnitzki massacres 100,000 Jews in Poland.
1648 The Treaty of Westphalia brings victory to the Protestants.
1649 In the largest Auto de Fe ever held in the New World, 109 crypto-Jews were accused of Judaizing, several were burned alive.
1649 John Casimir, upon ascending the Polish throne, negotiates a truce with Cosack leader and murderer of thousands of Jews, Bogdan Chmelnitzki.
1654 Arrival of 23 Jews from Brazil in New Amsterdam (New York, America).
1655 Dutch West India Company allows Jewish settlers to reside permanently in New Amsterdam.
1655 Jews readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell.
1657 The first Jews gain the rights of citizens in America.
1670 Jews expelled from Vienna.

Jewish Modern and Contemporary Periods

(ca. 1700-1917)


 

1700-1760 Israel Baal Shem Tov (founder of Jewish Hasidism).
1700 Jewish population in America numbers approximately 250.
1703-1758 Jonathan Edwards (American Christian preacher).
1703-1791 and 1707-1788 John and Charles Wesley (Christian).
1712 First public Jewish synagogue in Berlin.
1730 Jews build first North American synagogue in Lower Manhattan, Shearith Israel.
1740 England grants naturalization rights to Jews in the colonies.
ca. 1750 Wahhabi “fundamentalist” movement arises in Islam.
1753 Parliament extends naturalization rights to Jews resident in England.
1761 First English prayer book for High Holidays is published in New York.
1763 The Jews of Newport, Rhode Island, dedicate a Sephardic synagogue, designed by leading Rhode Island architect Peter Harrison.
1768-1828 “Father of Reform [Judaism],” Israel Jacobson.
1775 Pius VI issues Editto sopra gli ebrei, “Edict over the Hebrew,” suppressing the Jewish religion.
1775 Frances Salomon elected to South Carolina Provisional Congress; the first Jew to hold elected office in America.
1776 United States Declaration of Independence.
1775-1854 America merchant and philanthropist Judah Touro, funded first New Orleans synagogue.
1729-1786 Moses Mendelssohn (Jewish “enlightenment” scholar).
1762 Although usually considered more liberal than other states, Rhode Island refuses to grant Jews Aaron Lopez and Isaac Eliezer citizenship stating “no person who is not of the Christian religion can be admitted free to this colony.”
1765 Portugal holds the last public Auto de Fe “Act of Faith,” a ceremony where the Inquisition announces its punishments, usually a death sentence of burning at the stake.
1769-1821 Napoleon (France).
1775-1781 American Revolution; religious freedom guaranteed.
1781 Joseph II of Austria recinds the 513-year old law requiring Jews to wear distinctive badges.
1781 Haym Solomon, a Polish Jew who arrived in New York in 1772, helps raise funds to finance the American cause in the Revolutionary War.
1781-1869 American philanthropist Rebecca Gratz.
1783 The Sultan of Morocco expells the Jews for the third time in recent years after they failed to pay an exorbitant ransom.
1785-1851 Zionist author, journalist and and diplomat, Mordechai Manuel Noah.
1788 Ratification of the U.S. Constitution means Jews may hold any federal office.
1789 French Revolution.
1784-1885 Leading Jewish philanthropist, Sir Moses Montefiore, createed numerous agricultural settlements in Eretz Israel.
1789 Gershom Mendes Seixas, minister of New York’s Jewish congregation, is invited to Washington’s inaugural.
1790 Jews of Newport, Rhode Island welcome President George Washington. George Washington writes letter to Jewish community proclaiming religious liberty.
September 27, 1791 French Jews granted full citizenship for the first time since the Roman Empire.
1791 Tsarist Russia confines Jews to Pale of Settlement, between the Black and Baltic Seas.
1795 First American Ashkenazi synagogue, Rodeph Shalom, is established in Philadelphia.
1796 The Netherlands grants citizenship to Jews.
1798 Napoleon, battle of the Pyramids in Islamic Egypt.
1799 Napoleon’s army moves from Egypt, capturing Haifa and gets as far north as Akko which is successfully defended by the British.
1801-1804 Muslim Wahhabis capture Mecca & Medina, raid Karbala.
1801 The first American Jewish orphan care society established in Charleston, South Carolina.
1804-1881 English Statesman Benjamin Disraeli.
1808 Polonies Talmud Torah, the first Jewish school on record in the United States established in New York.
1811-1884 “Brains of the Confederacy,” Judah P. Benjamin.
March 11, 1812 Prussia’s Edict of Emancipation grants citizenship to Jews.
1812-1875 Moses Hess, author, socialist and Zionist.
1813 President Madison appoints Mordechai Noah as consul to Tunis and then rescinds the appointment when the Tunisians object to dealing with a Jew.
1814 King Ferdinand VII of Portugal reestablishes the Inquisition six years after it was abolished by Joseph Boneparte
March 29, 1814 Denmark grants citizenship to Jews.
1818-1883 Although born a Jew, he converted to Protestantism and later became the father of Communism, Karl Marx.
mid-19th century Rise of the Jewish Reform movement in Europe (Abraham Geiger.)
1819 Rebecca Gratz establishes the first independent Jewish women’s charitable society in Philadelphia.
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