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Tiberian Māšîăḥ (“anointed”), is a term used in Judaism, Christianity and Islam for the redeemer figure expected in one form or another by each religion. More loosely, the term messiah denotes any redeemer figure and the adjective messianic is used in a broad sense to refer to beliefs or theories about an eschatological improvement of the state of humanity or the world.
Messiah is used in the Hebrew Bible to describe priests and kings, who were traditionally anointed with holy anointing oil as described in Exodus 30:22-25. For example, Cyrus the Great, the king of Persia, though not a Hebrew, is referred to as “God’s anointed” (messiah). In laterJewish messianic tradition and eschatology, messiah refers to a leader anointed by God, and in some cases, a future King of Israel, physically descended from the Davidic line, who will rule the people of a united tribes of Israel and herald the Messianic Age of global peace. InJudaism, the Messiah is not considered to be God or a Son of God.
The translation of the Hebrew word Mašíaḥ as Χριστός (Khristós) in the Greek Septuagint became the accepted Christian designation and title of Jesus of Nazareth, indicative of the principal character and function of his ministry. Christians believe that prophecies in the Hebrew Bible refer to a spiritual savior and believe Jesus to be that Messiah (Christ).
Islamic tradition holds the view that Jesus (Isa), son of Mary, was indeed the promised prophet or Messiah (Masih) sent to the Semitic Jewish tribes living in Israel. He will again return to Earth in the end times after the arrival of Imam Mahdi, then he will descend from heaven to defeat the “great deceiver” i.e. Dajjal (false messiah).
The (Greek) Septuagint version of the Old Testament renders all thirty-nine instances of the Hebrew word for “anointed” (Mašíaḥ) as Χριστός (Khristós). The New Testament records the Greek transliteration Μεσσίας, Messias twice in John.
Messiah (Hebrew: מָשִׁיחַ, Modern Mashiaẖ Tiberian Māšîăḥ; in modern Jewish texts in English sometimes spelled Moshiach; Aramaic: משיחא, Greek: Μεσσίας, Syriac: ܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ, Məšîḥā,Arabic: المسيح, al-Masīḥ, Latin: Messias) literally means “anointed (one)”. In standard Hebrew, The Messiah is often referred to as מלך המשיח, Méleḫ ha-Mašíaḥ (in the Tiberian vocalizationpronounced Méleḵ haMMāšîªḥ), literally meaning “the Anointed King.”
Belief in the eventual coming of a future messiah is a fundamental part of Judaism, and is one of Maimonides‘ 13 Principles of Faith. The term Messiah is derived from the Hebrew “Mashiach”, which means “the anointed one,” and refers to the ancient practice of anointing kings with oil when they took the throne. The Messiah is the one who will be anointed as king in the End of Days.
The Torah describes the advent of the Messiah in the portion of Balak, couched in poetic prophetic prose: “I see him, but not now. I perceive him, but he is not near. There shall step forth a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel… From Jacob shall issue out and destroy the remnant of the city”, which Jewish Biblical scholars expound refers to the Messiah’s victory over Israel’s enemies.
The Talmud is replete with references and anecdotes about the Messiah and the Messianic era, and also provides exegesis of scriptural verses which illustrate the events that will occur at that time. For example, resurrection of the dead, which is exegetically supported by a verse in Exodus 15: “Az Yashir Moshe…” – “Then [Moses] will sing…”, from which is derived that “then” (in the Messianic Era) Moses will arise and once again sing as he did at the time of the Exodus.
The Messianic Age is described as follows by Maimonides:
- “And at that time there will be no hunger or war, no jealousy or rivalry. For the good will be plentiful, and all delicacies available as dust.
- The entire occupation of the world will be only to know God… the people Israel will be of great wisdom; they will perceive the esoteric truths and comprehend their Creator’s wisdom as is the capacity of man. As it is written (Isaiah 11:9): “For the earth shall be filled with the knowledge of God, as the waters cover the sea.” “
Maimonides describes the identity of the Messiah in the following terms:
- “And if a king shall arise from among the House of David, studying Torah and occupied with commandments like his father David, according to the written and oral Torah, and he will impel all of Israel to follow it and to strengthen breaches in its observance, and will fight Hashem’s [God’s] wars, this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one.
- If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple in its proper place and gathered the dispersed ones of Israel together, this is indeed the anointed one for certain, and he will mend the entire world to worship the Lord together, as it is stated: “For then I shall turn for the nations a clear tongue, so that they will all procalim the Name of the Lord, and to worship Him with a united resolve (Zephaniah 3:9).” 
The concept of the coming of The Messiah was held in the highest regard by pre-Christian Judaism. The Talm